Bowen’s Family Systems Theory is centrally focused on families as an emotional unit within the context of nature. Bowen systems theory serves as a guide for family therapy, and is moreover the cornerstone of family systems therapy. Bowen’s theory is robust; however, there are several key concepts and assumptions that construct its framework.
One such concept is triangulation–the basic arrangement of all existing relationships—which specifies that the initial relationship is between two individuals, then, after an undetermined period of time, a third person is inevitably included. The relationships between these three individuals will constantly shift, and one will consistently become the “outsider” of the triad and continue to push for change. De-triangulation occurs when a member of the system is successful at differentiating herself from the emotional system and gains personal control over emotionality and reactivity. This feat results in a sense of responsibility “to” the system as opposed to a responsibility “for” the system.
The primary focus of Bowen systems theory is the establishment of a differentiated self. Bowen declares that for one to operate at their highest level of functioning in any relationship system, it is necessary that differentiation from the system be reached and maintained. To function at a high level of differentiation, one must have well-resolved emotional attachments from previous family systems, not be dependent on reactivity from others in their relationships, and have the ability to remain objective regarding themselves as well as their current system involvement. This concept is introduced to clients at the beginning of therapy in order for their treatment to be optimally received.
When reviewing such concepts as triangulation and differentiation, it is necessary to understand the fundamentals of relationship systems. The nuclear family emotional system is the most basic of the relationship systems, and involves the parents and children only. This is when triangulation and shifts in relationships have the potential to change most frequently, and have the most significant impact on the individuals involved. The causes for the shifts in this system would most likely be from a persistent escalation of tension and anxiety within the system (i.e. between the parents, between a parent and child, or among the children), or the reactivity to significant events by the members of the system.
Concerning relationship systems, a key concept includes family projection which occurs within the nuclear family emotional system. Bowen proposes that a parent—most often the mother—projects her emotions onto a child as a result of the tension and anxiety she is currently experiencing and absorbing from her other relationships. The adaptive parent commonly becomes over-emotionally involved with one of the children, potentially leading to the child having differentiation issues and unresolved emotional attachments to this system as well as being prone to emotional cutoff from family. This is typically the result of the parent attempting to anticipate any insecurities or issues they may have, wrongly diagnosing these issues, and then “fixing” the dilemma, which ultimately leads to the child developing a strong, unnecessary dependence on the parent for the resolution to the issue.
Furthermore, the ability to function at a high level of differentiation is pivotal when studying the multigenerational transmission process. The multigenerational relationship patterns (positive and negative) exist when an individual enters new relationships with others who are functioning at a similar level of differentiation. This behavior perpetuates the cycle of parents attempting to shape the child, the child responding to the parents’ anxiety level, and the establishment of a significant dependency on the emotional reactivity of others in their system. Understanding the transmission of multigenerational patterns is a concept that Bowen placed at the forefront of his therapeutic approach. He would have clients construct a genogram depicting not only their nuclear family, but also their extended family system in an attempt for them to objectively see the behavioral patterns among all of the individuals involved, as opposed to simply possessing an emotional response to their family issues. When the children affected by the tensions of their nuclear family system become adults, and possible anxiety regarding their family of origin begin to surface, it is common to experience a negative emotional reaction and elect to completely separate themselves from the system. These individuals are functioning at low levels of differentiation so they are unable to de-triangle from the system, and feel they are only left with the option of emotional cutoff. By cutting themselves off they are leaving all of their emotional attachments unresolved, leaving them more likely to become overly dependent in other relationships; thus increasing the likelihood of significant levels of fusion—considerably lowering their functioning potential in the relationship.
A major factor in determining how each child in a nuclear family system absorbs tension and reacts to their parents’ anxiety is their birth order. Sibling position is a determinant for certain characteristics that individuals gain during adolescence, and maintain throughout adulthood. Bowen presented the concept that a first-born child may have a purposeful niche in the family. It is likely that this child will absorb the most anxiety produced by the parents’ relationship (i.e. the child provides a new focus for the mother’s emotions; the child provides an excuse for the father to spend additional time at work, etc.). The emotional responsibility of this child is so much more significant than that of his subsequent siblings, that although having been raised in the same household by the same parents, they will develop different personalities and characteristics. For example, a first-born child will be more likely to develop a stronger leadership role, have more unresolved emotional attachments, and function at a lower level of differentiation; whereas, the middle and youngest children will have been exposed to less anxiety, may function at higher levels of differentiation, and experience less dependency in adult relationships.
In addition to the emotional system that individuals experience with their nuclear and extended family, Bowen suggested that there also exists the presence of a societal emotional process that individuals are involved in as well. He emphasized that the current and future condition of society can have an effect on emotional systems. For example, if society’s current state is regression, then additional anxiety is likely to arise in family systems, creating more tensions that may not be present in the system if society was in a more consistent state.
Aside from the major concepts of Bowen’s theory, there are several background concepts and assumptions that must be taken into consideration when studying the theory or applying it to the clinical environment. The first of which is chronic anxiety. According to Bowen, one of the primary ways to create a balanced and fulfilling relationship in an emotional system is to regulate chronic anxiety. Chronic anxiety is a result of one’s emotional reaction to an imagined threat that has become sustained in the relationship, and has to potential to be detrimental to a relationship as one member will begin to disproportionally absorb the anxiety produced by the relationship. They become the “adaptive” member of the system, which prevents an individual from functioning at a high level of differentiation due to their overfunctioning in the relationship—spending so much of their energy anticipating negative reactivity from the other members of the system that they are incapable of free-thinking or taking a desired objective position on the relationship. As a result of being adaptive, social, mental, and physical symptoms may surface. These symptoms can surface in the form of depression, avoidant behavior, and medical ailments ranging from the common cold to cancer, just to name a few.
In addition to chronic anxiety Bowen presents the idea that humans are innately driven by two basic forces in life: individuality and togetherness. He suggests that individuals naturally seek to feel a sense of belonging, whether in a general social or working environment, or in a relationship system. This is his basis for introducing the concept of reactivity dependence, and that one who does not feel the desired belonging that they are searching for will develop an increasing dependency on the affirmation of their partner, and will continuously become more fused to that relationship. Also, if an individual does not have a clearly defined self, they will consistently be in search of their individuality. They will also seek relationships that cater to this aspect of themselves that they are lacking; most likely prematurely fleeing from their family of origin to do so.
Additionally, systems theory operates under the assumption that emotional systems are uncontrolled, and typically unconscious, reactions to events and situations experienced by humans. Bowen makes a distinction between emotions and feelings, insisting that feelings are the conscious reactions that surface when beneath lies a significant emotional issue. He also specifies that both feelings and emotions should be secondary to an individual’s objective perspective when observing their own relationship systems. In conjunction, Bowen addresses the concept that one’s family is an emotional unit, inferring that any changes within any of the systems can result in an unconscious emotional reaction affecting the entire multigenerational unit. This approach also assumes that any symptoms that develop in one individual can be a product of the anxiety absorbed from another part of the system, not just that individual’s nuclear family.